Cement is the most commonly used construction material. Due to its adhesive and cohesive properties, it can make bonding between aggregates and reinforcing materials together. It is obtained by burning and grinding of limestone and clay mixture.
Here we discuss different types of cement:
1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC):
It is the most common type of cement which is used extensively. OPC consists of argillaceous or silicates of alumina (clay and shale) and Calcareous or calcium carbonate (limestone, chalk, and marl). It has a high resistance to cracking and dry shrinkage and less resistance to chemical attack.
Three different types of Ordinary Portland cement is available:
33 grade, 43 grade & 53 grade. The strength of cement is represented by grades.
- It is used for general construction purposes
- Mostly used in Flooring, Plastering, and masonry works.
Features: Very less cracks due to its low heat of hydration and low compressive strength.
2. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC):
Pozzolans are synthetic materials that contain silica in reactive forms. It is prepared by grinding OPC clinker, Gypsum, and Pozzolanic Materials (Fly ash, volcanic ash, and Calcined clay or silica fumes.) The particle size of PPC is smaller than OPC, so it improves the pore size distribution and also reduces micro-cracks.
- It is usually used in marine structures, hydraulic structures, construction near the seashore and dams
- Mass concrete works like bridge footings.
Features: Compared to Ordinary Portland Cement this cement makes concrete more impermeable and denser.
And also compared to OPC, the long-term strength of PPC is better.
3. Portland Slag Cement (PSC):
PSC cement is prepared by grinding Portland cement clinker and ground granulated blast furnace slag followed by the addition of gypsum.
- It can be used for all purposes where OPC is used.
- Due to its lower heat evolution, it can also be used in mass concreting for dams, foundations.
Features: It works with Portland cement to reduce permeability, increase strength, improve resistance to chemical attack, and corrosion.
4. Low Heat Portland Cement:
This type of cement is prepared by lowering tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and increasing dicalcium silicate (C2S). Compared to OPC, it possesses less compressive strength.
- Suitable for large raft slabs and water retaining walls
- It is also used for large mass concrete works such as huge raft foundations, gravity dams, etc.
Features: It avoids shrinkage cracks. It evolves less heat, is less reactive and the initial setting time is greater than OPC.
5. Rapid Hardening Cement:
RHC is similar to OPC, It is prepared by more percent of Tricalcium silicate is more, and less percent Dicalcium silicate and ground more finely. With the same water-cement ratio, the 3 days strength of rapid hardening cement is similar to 7 days strength of OPC.
- It is mostly used in road and bridge constructions where speed is important.
- It is also used in repairs.
Features: In a short period of time, it attains high strength. Also acquires early strength.
6. Extra Rapid Hardening Cement:
It is prepared by inter grinding calcium chloride with rapid hardening cement. It gains strength quicker. It is also called as calcium chloride cement.
- It is used in the requirement of high strength.
- It is used in cold weather conditions.
Features: 3 days strength of OPC is equal to its 1-day strength.
7. Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement:
It is manufactured by keeping the percentage of Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) below 5%. It is highly sulphate resistant.
- It is used in places where the foundation soil is in contact with sulphates
Features: If kept in a wet place, this cement will get into premature hydration.
8. Quick Setting Cement:
It is prepared by adding a small percentage of aluminum sulphate and reducing the Gypsum content and ground into a fine powder.
- It is especially used in under-water construction.
- Used in cold and rainy weather conditions
- Used in where quick strength is in need in a short period of time
Features: The set time for this product is 5-30 minutes.
9. High Alumina Cement:
This type of cement is prepared by mixing calcining bauxite and ordinary lime with clinker during the manufacturing process of OPC.
- It is mostly used in construction that is subjected to high temperatures like foundries, workshops, etc.
- It is used in cold and under sea water.
Features: Within a day, it develops an ultimate strength of 80%.
10. Masonry Cement:
This type of cement is obtained by grounding the mixture of Portland Cement clinker with non-pozzolanic materials(limestone), gypsum, and air-entraining plasticizer.
- It is slow hardening, high water retentivity, high workability. So, it is suitable for masonry work.
- It is often used in brick, concrete blocks, etc.
Features: It creates strong bonding between bricks and also between concrete blocks.
11. Air Entraining Cement:
Air entraining cement is prepared by mixing air-entraining materials like resins, glues, etc in liquid form with an OPC clicker. It expands when the concrete gets frizzed in water.
- It is used in places, where the temperature is low.
- It can be used for walls and roofs for sound and heat insulation purposes.
Features: It forms tiny air bubbles during the concrete mixture. And also provides low strength in concrete.
12. Super Sulphate Portland Cement:
It is a hydraulic cement that has sulphuric anhydride (SO3) content of less than 5%. It is prepared by inter grinding 7% granulated blast furnace slag, calcium sulphate, and a little amount of Portland clinker.
- It is used in marine works.
- It is used for foundations with aggressive conditions.
Features: It has a low heat of hydration and resists sulphate attack.
13. White Cement:
White cement is prepared from raw materials that are free from iron oxide. It needs a high proportion of lime and clay. It is similar to OPC cement except in color and costlier than OPC.
- It is used in decorative works like the rendering of buildings, floors, slabs, swimming pools, etc.
- Used for traffic barriers, terrazzo surfaces, and tiles patching.
Features: While manufacturing white cement, special precautions should be taken. It’s chemical composition and physical characteristics meet the specifications of Ordinary Portland cement.
14. Colored Cement:
This type of cement is prepared by adding 5-10% of colored pigments to OPC. According to the desired color, pigments are selected.
- It is mostly used for various decorative works.
Features: The color will be darker when it is wet and when it dries it gets the final color.
15. Oil-Well Cement:
This type of cement is prepared by adding retarders like starches or cellular products to Ordinary Portland Cement. This cement prevents the escape of oil or gas from oil-wells(drilled in search of oil).
- It is used in places of high temperature and pressure.
Features: No chemical effect will occur due to oils in oil-wells.
16. Hydrophobic Cement:
It is prepared by adding water repellent substances such as Oleic acid or Stearic acid to OPC during the grinding process. This cement does not allow water to start the hydration process. It is different from waterproofing cement.
- It is used for underwater constructions, dams, etc.
- It can be used in wet climate conditions.
Features: Initially, the setting is slow. But after 28 days the strength of hydrophobic cement is equal to OPC.
17. Expansive Cement:
Expansive cement is prepared by adding stabilizers to sulphoaluminate and Ordinary Portland cement clinker. This stabilizes the expansion of cement.
- It is used for grouting anchor bolts and sealing joints.
- It is also used for grouting the prestressed concrete ducts
Features: It expands slightly and does not shrink during and after hardening.
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